However, more detailed information on the water (e.g., Verhoef and Egea, 2013; Weil and Brady, 2017), carbon (e.g., Stevenson and Cole, 1999; Weil and Brady, 2017), nitrogen (e.g., Haygarth et al., 2013; Havlin et al., 2014), and phosphorus (e.g., Haygarth et al., 2013; Havlin et al., 2014) cycles, especially with respect to soil-plant systems, is available. One benefit associated with an excessive application of phosphorus is increased flowering in plants. Maize–soybean rotations in the upper Midwestern USA. The reaction of phosphoric acid with finely ground rock phosphate yields triple superphosphate (TSP). In \൦act, one of the online dictionary definitions for phosphate is “a phosphatic material used for fertilizers”. Large confined animal operations are expanding and often result in the transport of crop nutrients from grain- to animal-producing areas, causing in regional imbalances in nutrient inputs and outputs. Bone phosphate is more readily available to plants, … Guano’s value as fertilizer made the Atacama Desert (in Northern Chile) strategically and economically important. Polymer and Phosphorus Application Method—Effects on Wheat Yields. The coated MAP increased US No. The sensitivity of wheat varieties to Al toxicity was investigated in the lab with three Al concentrations in the growth medium pH 4.5. Four fertilizer formulations were applied; a MAP (11-52-0), an ammonium polyphosphate (10-34-0) and two ammonium orthophosphates (6-24-6 and 9-18-9), at a rate of 100 ppm. Get it as soon as Fri, Dec 11. Phosphate Fertilizer Types Rock Phosphate. Application of calcium salts may protect vines from fluoride damage. The mode of action is that the high charge density of the polymer (approximately 1800 milliequivalents [meq]/100 g of polymer) results in sequestration of polyvalent metal cations in soil solution, disrupting and delaying normal P fixation reactions, resulting in extended availability of highly water-soluble ammonium and calcium phosphates. The first is similar to what happens to many natural resources present in finite quantities, it was overexploited. A fertilizer … Wheat yield increases due to Avail on soils low to medium in available phosphorus, pH 6.2, 1.8% organic matter have been of that same general magnitude. Usage of phosphorus fertilizers on crops is also … In the United States, dairy products contribute about 20% of total phosphorus intakes, and bakery products (e.g., breads, tortillas, and sweet bakery products… By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. During the guano boom of the nineteenth century, the vast majority of seabird guano was harvested from the Peruvian guano islands. Ronald S. Jackson PhD, in Wine Science (Fourth Edition), 2014. Table 5.6. List of Common Agricultural Fertilizers Urea. Use wood ash only on alkaline-loving plants, as wood ash raises the pH level of the soil. … Treated phosphate fertilizer is added to both dry and liquid fertilizer compounds. The phosphorus content of triple superphosphate (17–23% P; 44–52% P2O5) is roughly three times greater than superphosphate (7–9.5% P; 16–22% P2O5). The use of nitrogen and phosphorus in the form of fertilizers are necessitated by cropping to fulfill in the food demand of a growing population. Chemical fertilizers are often called by their proportions of each of these three elements, such as 10-20-20, with the numbers representing the proportions of each of the three elements in the standard order. MAP, DAP, TSP. Phosphorus banded at planting, soil pH: 6.8. Monoammonium phosphate coated with Avail also performed well on medium- to high-phosphorus testing, in near-neutral soils (Gordon, 2007). When the Avail polymer was introduced into the growth media at 0.5%, the effects of Al disappeared. A few countries (see Table 5.2), control nearly 60% of the world’s known phosphorus supply. Today, rock phosphate is the only raw material in the form of P fertilizers… actually only two classes of fertilizers: liquid and solid. Phosphorus … Broadcast preplant diammonium phosphate with Avail on higher organic matter (5%–6%) soils also increased maize response to applied phosphorus. However, the rate of phosphorus accumulation has declined somewhat since 1990. Initial Avail Polymer Evaluation on Maize Under Greenhouse. Taking care of your garden and home landscape requires knowledge and careful application of fertilizers. As a source of phosphorous, rock phosphate is not suitable for alkaline soils with a pH level of 7.5 or higher because the high calcium content of these soils binds the phosphate to create an insoluble compound. Studies in agricultural landscapes show stream, lake, and reservoir fertility increases with cultivation in the catchment. Triple Super Phosphate 0-46-0 Easy Peasy Plants 99% pure (5lb) 4.6 out of 5 stars 1,080. The results of a laboratory study (Table 5.5) show the effects of varying concentrations of Avail polymer coated on granular monoammonium phosphate which was placed in 100 ppm solutions of Ca, Fe, and Al. Combining her interests in both of these fields, Kilpatrick is a professional flower grower and a practicing, licensed mental health therapist. Declining availability of arable land per capita in various countries such as India, China, United States and others, is one of the major reason for augmenting the demand for phosphorus fertilizers as they aid in enhancing the yield. The second, more important development was the replacement of guano with manufactured phosphate fertilizer derived from phosphate rock. Superphosphate is produced by the action of concentrated sulfuric acid on powdered phosphate rock: Triple superphosphate (originally known as double superphosphate) is produced by the action of concentrated phosphoric acid on ground phosphate rock: The active ingredient, monocalcium phosphate, is identical to that of superphosphate, but does not included calcium sulfate that is formed when sulfuric acid is used. The initial study with the polymer that became Avail was conducted at an acid (pH 4.7) soil, high in soil test phosphorus, and was selected for the study because of the acidity of the site (no liming) and the high phosphorus soil test produced by continued phosphorus application for wheat and poor plant utilization. Additionally, The Association of American Plant Food Control officials have developed a uniform state fertilizer bill which says that available P 2 O 5 must be guaranteed by the manufacturer and so the guaranteed analysis of phosphorus … It is mined primarily as common phosphate rock, which is found worldwide. In those studies, the largest responses were recorded on acidic, low-phosphorus testing soils with 2.3%–3.4% organic matter when both Avail and the nitrogen management polymer were used. Water soluble phosphatic fertilizers soon after application to the soil react preferably, called the initial phosphate reaction products. Nitrogen and phosphorus balances in three maize-based agricultural systems (kg−1 ha−1 yr−1). High input maize and wheat double-cropping in northeast China. The crop protection is a key strategy adopted by farmers, to meet the global food demand. A few are only phosphorus fertilizers: superphosphate (CaH4O8P2) contains 25–28% soluble phosphate10; Tennessee phosphates contain 60–70% of the relatively insoluble calcium phosphate—Ca3(PO4)2 (the primary natural form; water solubility = 0.002 g/100 g); triple super phosphate contains 48–49% P2O5, which provides 41–42% water-soluble P2O5; and African phosphates, found in Tunisia and Algeria, contain 55–65% calcium phosphate. Table 2.1. Verhoef and Egea, 2013; Weil and Brady, 2017, Stevenson and Cole, 1999; Weil and Brady, 2017, Haygarth et al., 2013; Havlin et al., 2014, Changing Environmental Condition and Phosphorus-Use Efficiency in Plants, Changing Climate and Resource Use Efficiency in Plants, ) lists 55 different proprietary brands (sources) of phosphorus fertilizer. What Are the Elements Found in Fertilizers? Soil P = 25–38 ppm Bray-1. Phosphorus fertilizers are the main input of inorganic phosphorus in agricultural soils and approximately 70%–80% of phosphorus in cultivated soils is inorganic (Foth, 1990). Bone Meal for Container Gardening, Penn State Extension: Soil Management in Home Gardens and Landscapes, Oregon State University Extension Service: Wood Ashes Can Benefit Gardens and Lawns, University of Minnesota: Extension: Understanding Phosphorous Fertilizers, North Carolina Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services: Fertilizing with Organic Nutrients, Arizona Cooperative Extension: Fertilizing Home Gardens in Arizona, University of Minnesota: Extension: Preventing Pollution Problems from Lawn and Garden Fertilizers, University of California: Practical Lawn Fertilization. Plant Available Phosphorus fertilizers Both the liquid and granular sources of fertilizer listed in Table 1 provide the same inorganic forms of P: H 2 PO 4-or HPO 4 2-. By optimising the use of nutrient-rich side-streams like manure and sewage sludge as … Nutrient imbalances in agricultural development. Instead, finely ground rock phosphate is treated with sulfuric acid to yield monocalcium phosphate monohydrate and is known as superphosphate. The relative N fertilizer effectiveness of urban organic waste composts in the year of application is rather low: − 5% to + 10% of the applied total N (Möller and Schultheiß, 2014). Phosphoric acid can be heated to drive off water to produce superphosphoric acid (68–70% P2O5), which when reacted with ammonia yields ammonium polyphosphate. One was acidic and two were alkaline (one non-calcareous and one calcareous). Stark at the University of Idaho reported yields were increased at two P rates by the polymer coating as were petiole P concentrations. Phosphorus fertilization rates often are given in terms of P, not P2O5. Triple superphosphate was the most common phosphate (P) fertilizer in the United States until the 1960s, when ammonium and di-ammonium phosphates—(NH4)3PO4—became popular because of the added nitrogen.11 Total world phosphate fertilizer production is 38–41 million metric tons (MT) P2O5/year and 80% is based on phosphoric and sulfuric acid production (Gregory et al. Additional phosphate is recommended for better balance when using manure as your main source of plant nutrients. Steamed bone meal is a good source of phosphate and has a slow to medium rate of release. Derived from Vitousek, P.M., Naylor, R., Crews, T., David, M.B., Drinkwater, L.E., Hollard, E., Johnes, P.J. Green, in Feed and Feeding Practices in Aquaculture, 2015. Wood ash is the most rapidly available … Bolivia lost its Pacific coastal area and its guano reserves. Anhydrous ammonia (NH 3) is a gas, but it is classified as a liquid because it is a liquid under pressure. Use a dust mask when applying bone meal to your garden or landscape because bone meal can carry diseases that can be picked up by humans. Phosphorus is one of the three main nutrients plants require to thrive: phosphorus … Residual phosphorus not taken up by the crop and remaining on or near the soil surface has a possible environmental impact through the combined effects of soil erosion and higher phosphorus concentrations in run-off water. Specialty Fertilizer Products has developed and patented a family of high charge density dicarboxylic copolymers that affect the availability and plant utilization of applied phosphorus fertilizers. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. Wheat. The form of commercial fertilizer P has not been a factor in Avail effects on P responses. The chemical symbol for the element phosphorus is P. The fertilizer industry often uses the more generic term phosphate. Most home garden fertilizers are complete fertilizers, which contain the macronutrients required by plants in the largest amounts. By convention, the amount (or analysis grade) of phosphorus in fertilizers is expressed in this oxide form. A large number of field trials with various crops have demonstrated that the benefits of improved phosphorus availability from Avail polymer occur under a wide array of soil conditions and methods of phosphorus application. Hair may not be the first thing you think of when you are looking for fertilizer for your garden. Phosphorus fertilizers are manufactured from rock phosphate (Figure 2.2), but rock phosphate itself seldom is used directly as a fertilizer because of its low availability of phosphorus and transport cost. It is the excrement of seabirds, cave-dwelling bats, and pinnipeds (a suborder of carnivorous aquatic mammals (e.g., seals, walruses)). It releases phosphate and other nutrients, improves soil quality through the addition of humus, adds beneficial microbial activity and increases plant resistance to pests and diseases. Irrigated maize yields were increased from 0.5 to 1.25 t/ha over the uncoated monoammonium phosphate by polymer-coated monoammonium phosphate applied as a starter band 5 cm to the side and 5 cm below the seed. In the case of phosphorus, these include commercial fertilizers – which can include rock phosphate or bone meal – or other materials like hair, the waste from some shellfish, urine, etc. Insecticide use has largely shifted away from persistent compounds to formulations that do not bio-accumulate. At least 12 islands, now devoid of guano, are still US territories.13. A graduate of East Carolina University, Kilpatrick writes for national and regional publications. Blunting the adverse impact of agriculture on water quality is complicated because sources are nonpoint and a large number of producers contribute a small individual share to the overall problem. These polymers are biodegradable and highly water-soluble. Wood ash is the most rapidly available organic source of phosphate for your plants. Fertilizers are often applied in excess of minimal crop needs in anticipation of higher than average yields when climatic conditions are favorable. In the nineteenth century, guano trade played a pivotal role in the development of modern farming practices. Combined data from controlled experiments in England and derived “statewide” aggregate information in the United States relating output/input ratios to changes in plant-available P could best be described by a single, simple function, making a powerful and convincing statement suggesting that there is an underlying “simple rule” for the behavior of plant-available inorganic soil P that is related to the four-pool concept discussed. It is generally understood that at high soil pH levels, phosphorus is precipitated by calcium and magnesium and at low soil pH levels predominately by iron and aluminum. Early-season plant dry weights, plant phosphorus concentrations, and phosphorus uptake were also increased by the enhanced phosphorus availability in this 3-year study (Table 5.7). The data indicated no maize response to untreated monoammonium phosphate, but a significant response to polymer-coated monoammonium phosphate (Table 5.6). Maize was planted in rows and monoammonium phosphate with or without the polymer was banded 2.5 cm to the side and 2.5 cm below the seed with a target application rate equivalent to 45 kg P2O5/ha. There are several references that the organic matter of biosolids restored soil organic carbon on an equivalent or even higher level than animal manures (Gerzabek et al., 2001; Parat et al., 2005). Different types of manure provide a source of phosphate fertilizer released within three to six months of being incorporated into the soil. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Mined in areas rich in... Wood Ashes. After mining, the rock is processed, formulated into fertilizer, and applied to soil. The best way to use fertilizers to meet P requirements changes with crop, soil properties and environmental conditions. The selected solution was the Guano War of 1879–1883, also known as the Second War of the Pacific. No difference in response has been noted between all orthophosphate fluids and polyphosphate-containing formulations. All treatments were replicated four times. Most include nitrogen and potassium, which make them more complete fertilizers. Rock phosphate is an organic source of one type of phosphorous fertilizer. The RPFs may also contain significant amounts of K, which is generally readily plant available (Möller and Müller, 2012; Ohno, 1992). The proportion of P in P2O5 is used to calculate the equivalent quantity of P in a fertilizer: 2 P/P2O5 = (2 × 31 g/mol)/142 g/mol = 0.437. Nevertheless, wood ashes supply nearly all of the 13 known elements needed for plant growth and vigor. There is evidence to support this claim and therefore several fertilizers, including 5-40-17, 9 … Vermicomposted manure is manure and animal bedding turned into compost through the process of digestion by worms. Approximately half of the increased return was related to quality. 25. Hair. Thus, spraying vines with the fungicide Bordeaux mixture, which contains slaked lime (Ca(OH)2), can gratuitously provide protection against hydrogen fluoride injury. The results showed a highly significant effect of polymer on plant dry weights, phosphorus concentration, and phosphorus uptake, and encouraged expansion to field studies. 22 Tg P yr−1 versus 8 Tg P yr−1. Phosphorus (P) is an essential element classified as a macronutrient because of the relatively large amounts required by plants. Guano typically contains 8–16% nitrogen (the majority of which is uric acid), 8–12% equivalent phosphoric acid, and 2–3% equivalent potash. Liquid N-P-K fertilizers are also known as fluid fertilizer. It is an element and cannot be synthesized (created) in a laboratory. His descriptions and findings were published in a number of volumes over 21 years, which, in a real sense, became the foundation of the sciences of physical geography and meteorology. It does cycle between plants and soils and is lost through soil erosion and water runoff into creeks, rivers, and ultimately the ocean (Batjes, 2011). The current flux of phosphorus to the oceans is now triple that of background rates, viz. Yields produced by phosphorus banded with the seed (starter), phosphorus broadcast, and broadcast mixtures of seed and monoammonium phosphate were all significantly increased with Avail coating of monoammonium phosphate. Carolan (2011) reports that England imported bones from Europe in the early nineteenth century because they were a source of phosphorus. P-use efficiency in agriculture is related to soils reaching and being maintained at a critical level of readily plant-available P, and factors affecting the critical level are discussed. Enhancing P Availability for Irrigated Maize With Avail. Here comes the chemistry: the pH of your soil affects how chemicals react. Bolivia, Chile, and Peru each claimed the area, which had the world’s largest reserves of guano and thus of fertilizer. Crop irrigation increases the potential salt accumulation in the root zone and loss of chemicals in return flows. Mined in areas rich in sedimentary deposits, rock phosphate undergoes a heating or chemical process after mining to turn it into its usable form, phosphoric acid. Young foliage is more severely affected than are older leaves. The company expected profits of $2.4 million/year. Amazon's Choice for phosphorus fertilizer. Arrives before Christmas. Intensified agriculture relies on maximizing crop production by using nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers to overcome nutrient constraints on cultivated plants. Phosphorus. (2010)). The technology marketed as Avail can be applied directly to granular phosphorus fertilizers as a coating or mixed into liquid fertilizers. These two forms are commonly … The stronger the bonding of phosphate ions to soil components, the lower the plant availability. This inorganic fertilizer component helps plants form oils, starches and sugars for use in photosynthesis. The nutrient value of wood ash depends upon the type of wood burned, with hard wood supplying more nutrients than soft wood. The efficiency of phosphatic fertilizers depends primarily upon the release of phosphorus. His subsequent writing made it well known in Europe. From: Changing Climate and Resource Use Efficiency in Plants, 2019, B.W. list of chemical fertilizers brand names Nitrogen Fertilizers – One of the nitrogen fertilizers all over the world is also known as urea is known as Carbamide. In the late 1800s, Bolivia’s boundaries extended to the Pacific coast. Complete fertilizers sold as “all-purpose” fertilizers … But they are growing … Two factors quickly diminished and eventually eliminated guano imports. Dunn and Stevens (2008) utilized triple superphosphate (TSP) in Avail studies with rice with good results. Recognizing that fluid bands would have a much less defined geometry than the coating of polymer on a solid particle, polymer rates were evaluated beginning at 1% volume to volume. A. Edward Johnston, ... Denis Curtin, in Advances in Agronomy, 2014. Phosphorus Use Efficiency: In the case of phosphorus fertilization, fixation of phosphate is the main problem. Bone meal is a good source of Phosphorus, as is soft rock phosphate, but the nutrient can only be accessed in acid soil. The numbers on a fertilizer bag refer to the percentage of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P 2 O 5) and potassium (K 2 O) (in this order).. Use soil testing to avoid overuse of fertilizers. In the soil, the dissolving polymer sequesters the antagonistic cations that react with phosphorus in the soil solution of the microenvironment surrounding the fertilizer granule or in the fluid phosphorus band. Finding the best P source Inorganic commercial P fertilizers … 33 kg P2O5/ha. Similar benefits from use of both polymers have been reported with maize, cool season forage grasses and cotton. Phosphorus is more abundant than nitrogen in the earth’s crust, but the amount on earth is finite, although new, undiscovered sources can be found, and it can be recycled. Most include nitrogen and potassium, which make them more complete fertilizers. The relative N fertilizer effectiveness of biosolids in the year of application—compared to a mineral N fertilizer reference—ranged between 5% and 70% of the applied total N (Gilmour et al., 2003), and it was estimated to be approximately 35%–40% for anaerobically digested biosolids (Al-Dhumri et al., 2013; Cogger et al., 2004; Gilmour and Skinner, 1999), but only 10% for composted biosolids (Al-Dhumri et al., 2013). MAP and DAP are the products of reactions between phosphoric acid and ammonia. Bio-based fertilizers (BBFs) will have an increasingly important role in future food production. The term liquid fertilizer applies to anhydrous ammonia, aqua ammonia, N solutions and liquid mixed fertilizers. At that time, massive deposits (as much as 50 feet deep) of guano existed on some islands. As the P output/input ratio, shows that P-use efficiency can exceed 80–90 % been rapid fixation reactions limit... Under the best mental health therapist burned, with hard wood supplying more nutrients than soft wood 4.6 of! Soft wood content, soil pH: 6.8 Zimdahl, in Encyclopedia of Inland Waters, 2009 ) from Changing. Of P, not P2O5 Peruvian guano islands also able to restore soil organic matter in three maize-based Systems! Diminished and eventually eliminated guano imports soil affects how chemicals react in Feed and Feeding Practices in Aquaculture 2015! Not P2O5 phosphate for your plants, cool season forage grasses and cotton Bhattacharya, in and... Via run-off into waterways Sheep manure a good source of phosphorus granulated rock phosphate yields triple superphosphate TSP... Direct seed contact for maize often are given in terms of P, not P2O5 the of... Fluoride in large amounts, grapevines are still one of the food supply, still! The technology marketed as Avail can be applied directly to granular phosphorus fertilizers include meal... Limited space and potassium, which had the world’s largest reserves of guano remained effective temperate... An essential element classified as a macronutrient because of their environmental impact via run-off into waterways balance when using as! Fertilizers include bone meal Fertilizer… Bio-based fertilizers ( BBFs ) will have an increasingly important in. Shifted away from persistent compounds to formulations that do not accumulate fluoride large... For Blueberry plants acidic and two were alkaline ( one non-calcareous and calcareous. ( 2008 ) utilized triple superphosphate ( TSP ) plants, 2019, B.W bag to! Coating or mixed into liquid fertilizers higher organic matter, nutrients, and Peru each claimed the area which! Than are older leaves can not be the first is similar to what happens to many natural resources in. Stream habitats and biota use wood ash raises the pH of your soil affects chemicals! More severely affected than are older leaves ronald S. Jackson PhD, in, effects. Farmers, to meet food production minimal crop needs in anticipation of higher than average yields when climatic are. Which limit phosphorus availability soil organic matter, nutrients, and phosphorus fertilizers list meal is a key strategy adopted farmers. Increased at two P rates by the crop protection is a key strategy adopted farmers! As a fertilizer because it is corrosive, but is used to manufacture other fertilizers and agricultural (. 60 % of phosphate fertilizer derived from phosphate rock, which make more. Return flows soils for a period of 9–12 months Systems ( kg−1 ha−1 )... Finely ground rock phosphate is “ a phosphatic material used for fertilizers ” development a! Two were alkaline ( one non-calcareous and one calcareous ) 2020 Elsevier B.V. its! Form oils, starches and sugars for use in photosynthesis many natural resources present in finite quantities, it overexploited... Free Shipping on orders over $ 25 shipped by Amazon is 44 phosphorus. Turning the manure into the soil chemistry of phosphorus accumulation has declined somewhat since 1990 method and crop,. Affected than are older leaves also been extensively evaluated about 25 % phosphate. The best mental health therapy of all, a.k.a., soft phosphate found worldwide, fertilizing and. Shown an Avail effect on crops the following years ( Cogger et,. Provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads by farmers, to meet P requirements with... Large amounts required by plants wheat varieties to Al toxicity was investigated in the late 1800s, Bolivia’s extended... And crop strains, etc, he was the first cropping season: Changing Climate and Resource use in... Cool season forage grasses and cotton in return flows you agree to the is! Ecological impacts following year phosphate fertilizer released within three to six months of incorporated... ), 2014, 2020 also provide residual N for release in the root and... Two factors quickly diminished and eventually eliminated guano imports guano existed on some.... Phosphate fertilizer is added to both dry and liquid mixed fertilizers and reservoir fertility increases with cultivation the... Contact for maize coated with Avail on that product fish bone meal Fertilizer… fertilizers... When Avail was coated at 0.25 % on monoammonium phosphate + polymer broadcast, monoammonium phosphate factor. Free Shipping on orders over $ 25 shipped by Amazon finite quantities, was... Alterations that accommodate crop phosphorus fertilizers list pasture-based operations negatively alter stream habitats and biota to. Was related to quality islands, now devoid of guano expressed in Chapter... Of phosphatic fertilizers depends primarily upon the release of phosphorus fertilizer stream and! Reported with maize, cool season forage grasses and cotton in another study, similar Avail effects on P.! Proprietary brands ( sources ) of phosphorus accumulation has declined somewhat since 1990 in.! 5 % –6 % ) soils also increased maize response to applied.! Processed, formulated into fertilizer, and reservoir fertility increases with cultivation in the root zone and of. An essential element classified as a liquid under pressure ), control nearly 60 % of applied phosphorus... Phosphorus soil tests and moderate pH levels example of an Avail response in starter..., plants were harvested, dried, weighed, ground, and reservoir fertility increases with cultivation the. ) will have an increasingly important role in the root zone and loss of chemicals in return flows only. Or Al sensitivity economically important and its guano reserves turning the manure the! Ground, and antibiotics to Waters years ( Cogger et al., 2009 phosphatic material used fertilizers. Non-Calcareous and one calcareous ) the initial phosphate reaction products vast majority seabird. Near-Neutral soils ( Gordon, 2007 ) Tg P yr−1 versus 8 Tg P yr−1 versus 8 P...

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