How did the Aztec travel? The soldier was killed, and, likely when his body was ransacked, an Aztec caught the disease. Services, Working Scholars® Bringing Tuition-Free College to the Community. -Evans, ST 2004, Ancient Mexico & Central America: archaeology and culture history, Thames & Hudson, London. They did not want to kill them because they might be gods after all, but the Aztecs wanted them to move along. and trans. The smallpox weakened the Aztec cities around Tenochtitlan which soon fell to the Spanish and made it possible for the Spaniards to lay siege to Tenochtitlan. Aztec drawing of smallpox victims. Mexica’s obsidian swords and other close-combat weapons were no match for the steel-made Castellan swords that were way more efficient and resistant. Quickly, smallpox spread among the population. You can use them to display text, links, images, HTML, or a combination of these. They did not attend the sacrifice ceremonies that were given in their honor. The Spanish had a long experience fighting Muslims in their own country (at least 500 years) and they had developed a warrior class that was the best in the world. the Spanish brought smallpox to the Aztecs, wiping there population out and the Spaniards were treated like gods and tricked the Aztecs into finding gold for them and treated the Aztecs harshly. The Spanish took advantage of local rivalries and allied with other Mesoamerican civilisations. There are many myths about the way the Spanish defeated them, such as that the Spanish beat them because they had gunpowder weapons, but also since they took advantage of the fact that initially they believed that Cortes was their returning god Quetzalcoatl, and also because they were militarily superior to them. What happened to Montezuma? The conquistadores were attracted by the wealth of this Mesoamerican civilisation, and started to plan their conquest in order to obtain riches to bring back to their home country. Destroyed it. We’re talking about an empire that spanned from the Gulf of Mexico in the east, to the Pacific Ocean to the west, and as far south as Guatemala. Since the Spanish crown was across the ocean, it was not able to enforce the system. The sailors were ordered to treat the natives humanely, and they were to be considered equal. The Spanish did make efforts to incorporate Aztecan aspects into the new religious society. answer! In hopes of expanding European society into the area, the indigenous people ultimately lost their religion, their culture, their freedom, and their dignity under this system. They built their empire in Central Mexico in the area where Mexico City is found today. Sciences, Culinary Arts and Personal On the one hand you had a soldier of fortune looking for gold, who couldn't care less about the Aztec as long as he got the gold. -Clendinnen, I 1995, Aztecs: an interpretation, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. MILITARILY SUPERIOR OR BETTER STRATEGISTS? The Smallpox epidemic began the night that the Aztecs defeated the Spanish During the time of the Spanish conquest in the New World it is estimated that more than one-third of the total native population had been killed by smallpox viruses. Become a Study.com member to unlock this But Montezuma had his doubts about them. … So, how did a well-trained group of warriors that outnumbered the Spanish could have been beaten so quickly? The gunpowder weapons, like the cannons, were mostly use as a sort of psychological weapon or to drive them out of their hideouts. Conquered people had to pay tributes to the emperor. In many cases, the Spanish treated the Aztecs as slaves. The first Europeans that came into contact with the Aztecs were the Spanish in 1519. QUETZALCOATL MYTH Favorite Answer. Change ), You are commenting using your Twitter account. There are multiple 16th-century narratives of the events by Spanish conquerors, their indigenous allies, and the defeated Aztecs. the factors that helped the spanish defeat the aztecs were the european diseases that killed millions,and the aztecs had not developed any natural immunity to european disease. What happened to Tenochtitlan? Kept many of the women for the usual reasons. -Lockard, CA 2015, Societies, networks and transitions: a Global History, volume I: to 1500, 3rd ed. The answer is, as we already saw, a sum of two main factors: Castellan swords and diseases brought by the Spanish, for which the Mexica had no antibodies nor effective cure, plus a crucial one: the winning military strategy of the Spanish, and the alliance with other local Aztec tribes. Gunpowder weapons have been largely considered as the main reason why the Spanish beat the Mexica so quickly, as you can easily check in any school textbook. The Spanish did not act like gods. In particular, they detailed the plagues of cocoliztli (Nahuati for “pest”), a disease that seemed far more … When the Spanish conquistadors first fired their weapons, the blast and smoke shocked and amazed the Aztec people. info)),, variant spellings include Motecuhzomatzin, Montezuma, Moteuczoma, Motecuhzoma, Motēuczōmah, Muteczuma, and referred to retroactively in European sources as Moctezuma II, was the ninth tlatoani or ruler of the Aztec Empire, reigning from 1502 to 1520.The first contact between the indigenous … Some people captured in war were used for human sacrifice. Cortes advances into Mexico: 1519: Cortes reaches the coast of Mexico, in March 1519, with eleven ships. References (but also for further reading) The answer is yes; the Castellan sword. This description is based primarily on written documents from the 16th century but also includes some archaeological data. Other scholars pointed out that the fact the Aztecs considered the Spanish as god was a later construct, which was created to explain the relatively easy conquest of the Aztec Empire by the small group of Spanish soldiers. Their main city was Tenochtitlan (today’s Mexico City). -Stearns, PN, Gosch, SS., Grieshaber, EP, & Scardino Belzer, A 2012, Documents in World History Vol.2: The Modern Centuries: From 1500 to the Present, Pearson, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey (USA). GUNPOWDER WEAPONS: WERE REALLY THE KEY OF SPANISH VICTORY? So this was an advantage for him, since he was greeted instead of being seen as a menace. How did the Aztecs treat people they conquered in war? -Moctezuma EM & Olguin FS 2003, Aztecs, Royal Academy of Arts, London. The king and the expedition leader (like Hernan Cortes) each received 20 percent of all loot. The Spanish conquistadores, led by Cortes, started the exploration and observation of the Aztec Empire, and in their reports they described the Aztecs as an advanced and organised civilisation. These texts also tracked key natural events—storms, droughts, frosts and illness. During the same 160 years – from 1520 to 1680 – between 85% and 95% of Mesoamerica's native population died. … The truth as to why the Spanish defeated the Aztecs was that the Spanish were superior warriors. Held hostage by Cortes; killed in a battle between Spanish troops and Aztec warriors. Tenochtitlan was surrounded by water on all sides, but was also accessible via big roads, called causeways, and long canals along … The Aztec Empire was in existence from 1428 until 1521, when it was defeated by the Spanish Conquistadors and their allies. The Spanish defeat of the Aztecs in the sixteenth century is one example of the swift, silent, and deadly affects caused by disease. -Cortes, H 2001 [1519-1525], Letters from Mexico, Anthony Pagden and John Huxtable Elliott (eds. When they returned, the Aztec army quickly overwhelmed the Spanish, killing many and causing the rest to retreat. the spanish treated the people they conquered badly by forcing them into a system call encomienda which made the natives farm, ranch, or mine for spanish lanlords. All other trademarks and copyrights are the property of their respective owners. The Mexica were a warrior civilisation that was able to impose its rule in Mexico, rising among all the other Aztecs for their military ability and might. The peoples that the Aztecs conquered were treated little more than oppressed vassals. The Aztec empire was a flourishing and successful empire that had been ruled by Moctezuma for seventeen years, before it was colonized by the Spanish conquistadors who killed Moctezuma and crumbled the empire by destroying its cities. The Spanish were helped by the Tlaxcala, a Mesoamerican civilisation rival of the Aztecs, and other native tribes which allied with them to defeat the Aztecs, especially in the siege of Tenochtitlan because the Spanish falsely promised them territories and a tax-free partnership in the post-conquest rule of Mexico. Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. According to Diaz, a soldier of Cortes, … ( Log Out /  Before the arrival of the Spanish conquistadors, Montezuma was a renowned war leader, skilled diplomat and an able leader of his people who oversaw the consolidation of the Mexica Empire. The Aztecs: The Aztec Empire ruled Mesoamerica from 1300-1521. Edit them in the Widget section of the. After that, it was divided up among the men. Change ), This is a text widget, which allows you to add text or HTML to your sidebar. Also, diseases carried by the Spanish spread to the Aztecs and killed many of them. Firstly, Mexica is a more exact name for whom we usually call Aztecs. As this article tried to demonstrate, the Spanish took advantage of the weaknesses of the Mexica by allying with their enemies but also thanks to their superior weaponry, above all the Castellan sword. ( Log Out /  by Cortes and his military; present day Mexico City. The Aztecs didn't attack Cortes and his men at first because they did think that he was a god. They were Tenochtitlan, Texcoco, and Tlacopan. ancient history, Aztecs, history, Uncategorized. The Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire, also known as the Conquest of Mexico (1519–21), was one of the primary events in the Spanish colonization of the Americas. HISTORY OF THE AZTECS including Mexico City, Aztec sun rituals, Quetzalcoatl, Arrival of Cortes, Cortes and Montezuma, A brutal end . Smallpox was caused by an African being held as a slave, from the Spanish army, who had smallpox. Another common belief is that the Mexica, especially their ruler Montezuma, believed that Cortes was the personification their god Quetzalcoatl. Also, the Spanish people’s horses played a role, even if marginal, by scaring the Mexica since there were no horses in Mesoamerica at that time, so the natives were frightened by their sight and that was yet another advantage for the conquistadores. The Mexica were a native civilisation of Central America and were invaded by the Spanish in the early sixteenth century. The Aztec Empire ruled Mesoamerica from 1300-1521. Moreover, the perception of the Spanish and especially of Cortes as an Aztec god, appear to be reported only by Spanish sources. The Spanish progressively restricted and outright forbade the enslavement of Native Americans in the early years of the Spanish Empire with the Laws of Burgos of 1512 and the … The correct answer is B) The Aztecs had a complex civilization that was destroyed but the Spanish conquerors. He is the Spanish conquistador Cortes. Instead, the quick collapse of the Aztec empire probably depended on other factors such as the pandemic diseases that they brought to Mexico, which can be defined as one of main causes of the quick fall of the Aztec Empire. According to Diaz, a soldier of Cortes, Montezuma sent his painters to the Spanish quarters to depict all the encampment and the Spanish army, and in the Cortes’ representation he saw a resemblance to Quintalbor, an Aztec lord. © copyright 2003-2020 Study.com. The Aztecs were severely weakened by diseases that the Spanish brought such as smallpox, influenza, and malaria. The Aztecs were a fierce people with a strong warrior culture. So, as demonstrated widely, they were highly trained warriors, masters of hand-to-hand combat. ( Log Out /  This article will examine these points of view by trying to shed light on them, but also provide an alternative point of view on why the Mexica were defeated by the Spanish so quickly. They carry some 600 men, 16 horses and about 20 guns of various sizes. Their civilisation represented the last stage of the evolution of the Mesoamerican native civilisations, and reached its apex in the early sixteenth century, just before it was destroyed in 1521 by the Spanish invaders. But after Cortes captured the priest or leader, he masacured many Aztecs and conquered their land. They also had scheduled ritual battles with their enemies called flowery wars, both to acquire prisoners for sacrifices and to train the new soldiers, plus they were way more than the Spanish conquistadores. Although it is true that Montezuma was unsure of how to deal with the Spaniards and that his indecision led in no small measure to the downfall of the Aztec Empire, this is only part of the story. The Aztecs and Inca Empires were rich in gold, silver, precious stones, and other things the Spanish found less valuable, like brilliant clothes made of bird feathers. So, was there a weapon that was really the key to Spanish victory against Mexica? ), Yale University Press, London. It really depended on the person. Create your account. Cengage Learning, Stamford, Connecticut (USA). The Aztecs thought that the Spanish were gods so they worshiped them and did whatever they could to please them, at first. Many authors argued that Cortes took advantage of the fact that the ruler of Tenochtitlan, Montezuma II, was convinced that he was the returned Feathered Serpent god, Quetzalcoatl, as forecasted by an ancient prophecy. welcomed them. How did the Aztec treat the Spanish when they first arrived? So, gunpowder or the alleged fact that the Mexica saw Cortes as god were not the real reasons of the quick defeat of the Mexica, which instead were overall beaten by the superior military strategy of the Spanish conquistadores. Non warriors not killed were enslaved- again normal practice for the time. Who won the initial battle between the Spanish and... What did the Spanish think of the Aztecs? Spanish’s military success was due to their military superiority and also to the support of local Mesoamerican tribes. It was not solely a contest between a small contingent of Spaniards defeating the Aztec Empirebut rather the creation of a coalition of Spanish invaders with tributaries to the Aztecs, and most especially the Aztecs' indigenous … Moreover, Mexica’s armour was made of cotton, though it was light and protected them well against in fights with other Aztecs, it was not resistant enough to protect them from the Spanish’s weapons. Upon encountering natives in the new land, he notified Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand of Spain, who instructed Columbus to make the natives subjects of Spain. Earn Transferable Credit & Get your Degree, Get access to this video and our entire Q&A library. Hernan Cortes: The Aztec Empire, or the Triple Alliance, was an alliance of three Nahua city-states: Tenochtitlan, Texcoco, and Tlacopan. The siege was characterised by a series of brutal and chaotic fights along the waterways and within the City precincts of Tenochtitlan as the Spaniards sought to establish control over the City whilst the Aztecs feverishly defended it. However, as many scholars demonstrated, the nature of the fights between the natives and the conquistadores was one-to-one and hand-to-hand combat, especially the siege of Tenochtitlan. It was located in Central America, in part of modern day Mexico. The people had no resistance and no idea how to treat it. Hernon Cortes led a group of Spanish conquistadors into the... Our experts can answer your tough homework and study questions. How did the Aztecs and Cortes interact with each... How many Aztecs were killed by the Spanish? Conquistadors who participated in any successful campaign were given shares based on many factors. How long did the Spain rule over Mexico? The queen ordered the natives to be converted to Christianity and taught European behaviors. The Spanish were secretly glad to leave. how did the spanish treat the peoples they conquered? The Aztecs decided it was time for the Spanish to leave. He also described the marketplaces selling precious goods, bath and shops that he personally saw during his exploration of the Central American territories. As well, the metal armor of the Spanish fascinated the Aztec because they did not have any similar form of protection. Mexica were the most powerful of the Aztec ethnic group, who were the inhabitants of today’s Mexico. ( Log Out /  They were totally wiped out by the Spanish colonisation in the early sixteenth century which was led by the conquistador Hernan Cortes. However, it would be difficult to understand whether or not the Spanish were really mistaken for gods. Today it is the capital of Mexico and one of the largest cities in the world. In our previous animated historical documentary we have covered the Rise of the Aztecs. Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. Over time, around 80 percent of the people living in the Valley of Mexico died from these diseases. Change ), You are commenting using your Google account. To find answers, Acuna-Soto spent a dozen year poring through ancient documents written by 16th century Spanish priests who worked with the Aztecs to preserve a record of their history, language and culture. Slavery in the Spanish American colonies was an economic and social institution which existed throughout the Spanish Empire.In its American territories, it initially bound indigenous people and later slaves of African origin.. The literature, both published and unpublished, of the 16th century is enormous and takes in all aspects of Aztec culture. This disease killed many Aztecs Aztecs being forced to work under the Encomienda system The Spanish burn Aztecs at the … The Empire was actually a confederation of three city-states that shared power with one another. Moreover, the perception of the Spanish and especially of Cortes as an Aztec god, appear to be reported only by Spanish sources. worst problem was the diseases brought by Spanish to susceptible Aztecs, etc- the smallpox epidemics with 10% fatalities for Spanish had over 50% fatalities among the natives and pretty much meant few combat affective's left to resist. The Spanish party is soon … killed most of them in Mexico city area. All rights reserved. What did the Spanish do to much of the Aztec art and architecture? Personally, I think that the Mexica are one of the most fascinating civilisations of all times. -Coe, MD & Koontz, R 2008, Mexico: from the Olmecs to the Aztecs, 6th edn, Thames & Hudson, London. At the time of the Spanish conquest the dominant people of Meso-America were the Aztec. They were also “helped” by more subtle enemies, the illnesses that they introduced in Mesoamerica that decimated the Mexica. Explain at least three similarities and... What factors enabled the Spanish to conquer the... Hernan Cortes: Accomplishments, Exploration Route & the Aztecs, New Spain: Spanish Explorers and Spanish Colonies, ILTS Social Science - History (246): Test Practice and Study Guide, GED Social Studies: Civics & Government, US History, Economics, Geography & World, MTTC Social Studies (Secondary)(084): Practice & Study Guide, TExES History 7-12 (233): Practice & Study Guide, NY Regents Exam - US History and Government: Help and Review, Prentice Hall America: History of our Nation: Online Textbook Help, High School World History: Homework Help Resource, TCI History Alive World Connections: Online Textbook Help, Glencoe U.S. History - The American Vision: Online Textbook Help, Middle School US History: Tutoring Solution, Prentice Hall United States History: Online Textbook Help, Biological and Biomedical Cortés founded Mexico City on the ruins of Tenochtitlan. How did Cortes treat the Aztecs? How did the Spanish treat the Aztecs? After taking over the Aztec Empire, the Spanish conquistadors moved on to take over other parts of Mesoamerica. Other scholars pointed out that the fact the Aztecs considered the Spanish as god was a later construct, which was created to explain the relatively easy conquest of the Aztec Empire by the small group of Spanish soldiers. Mexico City ) they carry some 600 men, 16 horses and about 20 guns of sizes. Day Mexico City ransacked, an Aztec god, appear to be reported only by Spanish,! That Cortes was the personification their god quetzalcoatl conquistadors and their allies, Societies, networks and transitions: Global. You to add text or HTML to your sidebar queen ordered the to! The Mexica were the inhabitants of today ’ s military success was due to military! Takes in all aspects of Aztec culture Aztecs conquered were treated little more than oppressed vassals Mexico from... 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